Category Archives: zoning board decisions

What is the Standard for a Property Owner to Object to a Zoning Board Decision Based on the Appearance of Impropriety?

May a property owner object to the appeal of a Zoning Board decision solely on the basis that the way the appeal was handled presented an appearance of impropriety?  This question was addressed by the Supreme Court of New Jersey in Kane Properties, L.L.C v City of Hoboken, 2013 WL 3197164 (NJ 6/26/2013). [READ CASE HERE]

In that case, plaintiff applied to the Hoboken Zoning Board to obtain the required variances to develop a twelve story high-rise. During a Zoning Board hearing, the Skyline Condominium Association, Inc. (“Skyline”), objected to the development proposal. However, the Zoning Board granted the variances to plaintiff anyway. Skyline appealed to the Hoboken City Council challenging the approval of the plaintiff’s variances.

However, an issue arose when the attorney for Skyline, Michael Kates, Esq., was appointed to serve as Hoboken’s Corporation Counsel. Although he resigned as counsel to Skyline, nevertheless, Plaintiff objected to Kates’ participation in the proceedings before the City Council respecting the same matter. Accordingly, Kates recused (separated) himself from participating in those proceedings.

The City Council considered whether to reverse the variances given to plaintiff. Although Kates was supposed to have totally recused (separated) himself from those proceedings, he did become involved in aspects of them. Indeed, as the Supreme Court would later note, “Kates acted as counsel to the governing body, he answered questions from Council members, he advised them on voting procedures, and he signed the resolution following their vote to indicate he had approved it.” Id.

Ultimately, the City Council approved the Zoning Board’s decision. Plaintiff initiated an action in the Superior Court of New Jersey challenging the city’s decision. Ultimately, the matter was appealed all the way to the Supreme Court of New Jersey.

The Supreme Court found that Kates had violated a requirement that is normally applied to Judges: whether the action or inaction evokes the appearance that there has been an appearance of impropriety. In other words, even if technically each thing he had done was not an actual conflict of interest, taken as a whole, they appeared improper.

The Court noted that normally the appearance of impropriety standard applies to Judges, but nevertheless, when the attorney is advising a quasi-judicial body, the standard can also apply to the attorney. In this case, the City Council was considering an appeal of the Zoning Board’s determination, and that put it in a quasi-judicial capacity. For that reason, Kates’ activities were covered by the appearance of impropriety standard. Since he violated it, the Supreme Court sent the matter to the Law Division of the Superior Court of New Jersey to consider it anew in light of the Supreme Court’s ruling.

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