Category Archives: google

Does Google’s Keyword Advertising Constitute Trademark Infringement?

Proving that a mark was used in commerce has long been a requirement for plaintiffs claiming trademark infringement. After all, there is no need to protect a mark that is not being used.

But the case law concerning the definition of “use” was decided before the advent of the Internet. Accordingly, there are a host of new issues that Courts are wrestling with in the modern era. One of them is whether employing a word or phrase in what is called, “keyword advertising” is a “use in commerce” that may violate trademark protection.

Keyword advertising concerns the way people find relevant content on the Internet. When a person performs an Internet search, two types of search results arrive on the page. First, the search engine provides a list of links to websites that it determines to be relevant to the term that is searched. Second (and more important in this case), the search engine provides context-based advertising that includes links to products correlated to the user’s search. Advertisers are permitted to bid on keywords that users might enter into searches. When a user enters a keyword that has been purchased by an advertiser, the website of that advertiser will appear as a sponsored link on the search result page.

In a 2009, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit addressed this issue in Rescuecom Corp. v. Google, Inc., 562 F.3d 123 (2d Cir. 2009). The plaintiff in Rescuecom, a computer-related services company, had registered the term “Rescuecom” for trademark protection. As part of its advertising strategy, it purchased keywords from Google to promote its services. However, when it attempted to purchase the keyword “Rescuecom” from Google, it realized that Google had already sold the keyword to one of the plaintiff’s competitors. As a result, when Google users entered “Rescuecom” into a search, the competitor’s links would show up alongside the search results, in addition to the link to the plaintiff’s site.

Rescuecom alleged that Google’s sale of its trademark as a keyword constituted trademark infringement. The United States District Court for the Northern District of New York decided in Google’s favor and held that Rescuecom failed to allege any facts indicating that Google’s actions constituted a “use” of the trademark. Rescuecom appealed.

In order to prevail on a claim for trademark infringement, a plaintiff must establish that he or she:

1) has a valid, registered trademark that is entitled to protection;

2) that the defendant used the mark;

3) that the use was in commerce;

4) that the use was in connection with the sale or advertising of goods or services; and

5) that the use was without the plaintiff’s consent.

1-800 Contacts, Inc. v., Inc., 414 F.3d 400, 406 (2d. Cir. 2005) (citing 15 U.S.C. § 1114(1)(a)).

The Rescuecom Court reversed the lower court’s decision and held that Google’s actions did constitute “use” of the plaintiff’s trademark. The Court found that “what Google is recommending and selling to its advertisers is Rescuecom’s trademark.” Rescuecom at 129. It stated that Google “displays, offers, and sells Rescuecom’s mark to Google’s advertising customers when selling its advertising services.” Id. Additionally, it “encourages the purchase of Rescuecom’s mark through its Keyword Suggestion Tool.” Id.

Google had argued that the inclusion of a trademark in an internal computer directory could not be considered trademark use. However, the Rescuecom Court held that if that were the case, “the operators of search engines would be free to use trademarks in ways designed to deceive and cause consumer confusion.” Id. at 130. The case was remanded for further proceedings.

Rescuecom is generally in line with the decisions made by the courts of other jurisdictions when hearing similar cases. In 2010, the Tenth Circuit held that a “use in commerce” existed where the plaintiff’s mark was used to promote a defendant’s services and consumers were provided with a link to a website where it could purchase products from the defendant. 1-800 Contacts, Inc. v., Inc., 755 F.Supp. 2d 1151 (D. Utah 2010). Other circuits have relied upon and agreed with the Rescuecom decision. See Fair Isaac Corp. v. Experian Information Solutions, Inc., 645 F. Supp. 2d 734, 760 (D. Minn. 2009); Network Automation, Inc. v. Advanced Systems Concepts, 638 F.3d 1137, 1145 (9th Cir. 2011).


© 2012 Nissenbaum Law Group, LLC

What is the current legal status of Europe’s “right to be forgotten” doctrine as it relates to Internet Defamation?

A Spanish court recently asked Internet-search provider Google to remove data about a private individual from its index.  Spain and other members of the European Union made this request under a doctrine that is commonly referred to in Europe as “the right to be forgotten.”

In 1991, a Spanish newspaper published a critical profile of Spanish plastic surgeon, Dr. Hugo Guidotti Russo.  The article referenced a dispute Dr. Russo had with a patient, but failed to mention how meritorious the claims were or how the dispute was ultimately resolved.  According to Dr. Russo’s attorney, the lawsuit was dropped once Dr. Russo was cleared, but no media covered that aspect of the case so it never appeared on the Internet.  Dr. Russo is still a practicing plastic surgeon in Spain and when potential patients use Google to search for him, the critical article regularly appears on page one of the search results.  Dr. Russo believed that the article was harming his ability to attract patients and, with the support of a Spanish court and the Spanish Data Protection Authority (“SDPA”), asked Google to remove the article from its index.

Google refused to remove the article claiming that the Spanish regulators exceeded their authority and that their directive was equivalent to censorship.  The important issue raised was how much control private individuals should have over the information about them that appears on the Internet.  Currently, there is a groundswell of support in Europe for the “right to be forgotten” movement such that it may be codified as law.  The SDPA has previously ruled that freedom-of-expression laws in Spain protect only newspapers and other publications and do not protect search engines.

Other examples of private individuals seeking to “be forgotten” in Spain include:

A high school principal whose citation for urinating in public was published by an official regional government gazette and may still be seen by students and parents alike via a Google search.

A prison guard concerned that a job-related sanction that appeared in Google search results might lead criminals to determine where he works.  Spanish police and prison guards are often granted anonymity due to fears that they might be identified, located, and targeted by the armed Basque separatist group ETA.

An individual accused of homicide forty years prior but acquitted due to mental illness.  A Google search performed forty years later reveals news of the accusation, but no news of his acquittal or the mental illness that justified the acquittal.

Google’s response is that Spain should require the publications that make the material available via the Internet to embed coding that would tell search engines not to index the information.  Privacy experts agree that requiring Google to remove information from its index could have a profound chilling effect on free expression.  Advocates of the “right to be forgotten” rules counter that users of the Internet should have a right to be forgotten when the data is no longer needed or when an affected individual requests that the data be removed.  The legislation being considered by the European Union would focus mainly on data, photos and, videos that individuals post of themselves on sites such as Facebook and Twitter, that the individuals may later want removed.


© 2011 Nissenbaum Law Group, LLC